How Hawaiian Cotton Helped save the U.S. Cotton Industry

Hawaiian cotton flower

Circa 1892, a small beetle native to Central or South America made its way across the Mexican border in the vicinity of Brownsville, Texas and spread rapidly across cotton-growing regions. By the 1920s, Anthonomus grandis, the boll weevil, was causing more economic damage than any agricultural pest in U.S. history.

The boll weevil feeds on cotton pollen, but does its damage by laying eggs on cotton flower buds called “squares,” or on the young developing cotton boll, which provides the beetle with a platform for its “home.” The infected bud or boll stops developing and often falls off as the beetle larvae eat it. The destruction spread from Texas across the South and Southwest, so that by the Great Depression, cotton farmers had already suffered from many years of devastatingly poor harvests. Eventually, it found its way to California cotton fields as well.

The first pesticide used on infested cotton crops was arsenic, but the boll weevil developed a tolerance for it. Another pesticide, DDT, was tried in the mid-twentieth century, but, once again, the pests developed a resistance to it. Plus, the heavy application of pesticides killed a wide spectrum of beneficial insects, allowing other pests to increase their numbers and damage cotton and other crops. And there was a danger of polluted adjacent food crops, water supplies and consequential ecological damage.

But humans are adaptable, too. A variety of strategies—started in the 1970s—such as pheromone traps in the spring, hand picking infected cotton buds during the growing season, plowing under the cotton stalks after harvest, and low levels of pesticides when the insect is short of food in the fall, all helped to stem the destructive tide of boll weevil devastation.

An important ingredient in the mix was Hawaiian cotton. When ma’o is crossed with other cotton strains, the resulting commercial hybrids are less attractive to insect pests that destroy cotton crops. Ma’o lacks the flavor lactones within the nectar which would otherwise attract insects to commercial cotton.

Now, in most states, the boll weevil and other cotton pests have left and are unlikely to return. But in Enterprise, Alabama, the city has erected a statue to the boll weevil because, they say, there is a great deal we can learn from an invasive bug, even as we show it the door.

Perhaps they should erect a statue to Ma’o, the Hawaiian cotton plant, too.

p.s. visitors to Oahu, Hawaii, can find ma’o growing wild along the dry slopes at the Makapu’u scenic lookout.

Categories: Agriculture, environment, flowers, gardens, Hawaii, History, nature | Tags: , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Shape Shifting

Moon and Observatory, Trelew, Argentina

In “How to Take Better Pictures,” https://www.blurb.com/b/9590931-how-to-take-better-pictures-photo-class-in-a-book, you’ll see that an intriguing composition is the basis for all great photographs. One aspect of composition I discuss in the book is “Lines.” Today, I’d like to add to that by discussing “Shapes.”

Look around and you will see that the world is made up of shapes: ovals, circles, squares, rectangles and triangles, among others. Mountain ranges, for example, are a series of triangles. Bridges are often full of squares, rectangles and triangles. When you look at it that way, shapes literally hold our world together.

The shot you see here is composed of several shapes: a circle, a half dome, many rectangles in the building and windows, and a cylinder-shaped main section. I could see the moon getting closer to the building, so I waited until it looked like it was sitting on the roof before taking the shot. The building, by the way, is actually an observatory in the town of Trelew, Argentina, making the combination of shapes particularly poignant: The moon is attaching itself to the observatory.

The challenge of this post is, then, is to photograph two or more shapes together to tell a story or make a statement. Can you come up with something?

Categories: Architecture, Argentina, Art, Books, Conceptual, Photography, South America, Travel | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Take Better Pictures: Photo Class in a Book

 

 

My new book is finally here, includes hundreds of photos, lots of advice/tips for both DSLR and cell-phone-camera users, and can be found at: https://www.blurb.com/b/9590931-how-to-take-better-pictures-photo-class-in-a-book

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The Most Beautiful Church in the World

wide-angle interior showing plant-stem columns, flower ceiling and stained glass

In 1883, whimsical creative architect Antoni Gaudi started working on Sagrada Familia (sacred family), a huge Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, Spain. At the time of his death in 1926 (he was hit by a streetcar), less than a quarter of the building was finished. Slow progress then and later was partially due to lack of funding (it relied on private donations) and the Spanish Civil war (1936-39) By 2010, when I first visited, it was more than halfway done, but the central nave was stacked with building materials so we had to walk around the edges. On my second visit, last September (2018), the interior was complete and spectacular. The outside towers, however are still under construction, and the expected finish date is 2026—100 years after Gaudi’s death.

Known as God’s Architect, Gaudi felt that the Medieval Gothic style of his day was limited. It relied on large support structures called buttresses, and he believed that God’s house should be free of bulky supports, yet limitless in its height and grandeur, so he turned to nature, or what he saw as God’s architecture. The support columns of the church resemble the stems of plants, making the design stronger and lighter and allowing for more natural light. Gaudi built many of his models upside down to show how the weight would be distributed.

The main entrance, in the nativity façade, contains a complex variety of scenes featuring Jesus, Mary, Joseph, angels, kings, shepherds, flowers, animals and birds, all depicting the adoration at the birth and life of Jesus. The rear entrance, or Passion façade, depicts the death of Jesus with simple lines and figures. Many architects have worked on the church since Gaudi’s death, and all did their best to stay true to his plans and vision. Sagrada Familia has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Categories: Architecture, Art, churches, culture, engineering, Europe, History, Photography, Spain, Travel | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

5 Days in Venice: Magical or Mundane?

Gondolas in Venice's lagoon

I’ve heard mixed reviews about Venice. Some say it’s the most magical city in Europe. Others complain that it’s too touristy and over-rated. Yes, Venice calls to tourists like the hive calls to a swarm of bees. If you stay in the areas around St. Mark’s Square, you’ll encounter similar swarms of tourists and long lines. But even there, the magic is palpable.

We wanted to visit the Doge’s Palace and infamous prison while avoiding the crowds, so we went late in the afternoon. At one time, Venice’s powerful Doges ruled much of Europe from their palace in the sea. Anyone who opposed them was thrown into the palace’s dungeons, but eventually, more room was needed, so a separate prison was built across a small canal next to the palace and the two connected by a covered bridge. Writers later referred to this passage as the Bridge of Sighs as it was thought that prisoners sighed as they looked out at the pleasures of Venice, which they would never experience again. As we crossed into the prison, we peered out through the small, decorative window openings at a crowd of tourists taking pictures of this famous bridge.

After our palace/prison tour, we decided not to stand in the long, snaking line waiting for the elevator to the top of the Campanile, a tall tower in the square. I bet the view was amazing from the top. Instead, we found a table at one of the outdoor restaurants, ordered some food and a spritz (a Venetian specialty drink) and listened to an orchestra playing classical and contemporary music as the setting sun turned the façade of St. Mark’s cathedral to gold. Definitely magical.

We had planned to ride in a gondola, but in the small canals around St. Mark’s Square, dozens of gondolas, each carrying a couple or family, lined up like a traffic jam on a watery freeway. Many of the couples looked bored or were staring at their cell phones. Not romantic. Not magical.

Instead, we walked the narrow car-free lanes and crossed tiny canal bridges as well as large ones such as Rialto and Accademia—two of five spanning the Grand Canal. Rialto was the first built. Its premiere incarnation in 1181 consisted of a row of boats tied together side by side and planks laid on top of them. With its second incarnation in 1255, it became a wooden drawbridge allowing ship traffic up and down the canal. It collapsed in 1444 (under the weight of a crowd gathered to watch a boat parade in celebration of a wedding) and again in 1524, then was redesigned and built in 1591 as a covered stone structure lined with shops on both sides.

Instead of a tourist hotel, we opted to rent an apartment near the outskirts of Venice island. After taking some wrong turns trying to find the address while dragging suitcases behind us, we eventually arrived at a door in a building down an alleyway. One flight (but lots of steps) up, our apartment was perfect, with a balcony overlooking the small canal below. Our landlady, Sophia, lived next door and her dogs barked each time they heard us coming home. Below, along the canal, a string of restaurants and a wine bar made up the social life of our neighborhood. Sometimes we cooked our meals (there was a grocery store not far away); sometimes we ate out. We felt like we belonged there.

We also adapted to life without cars. Once we located our vaporetto (basically a bus on water) stop, we bought passes and went everywhere. The vaporettos were always crowded with standing room only, so we positioned ourselves near the “door” enabling us to get on and off easily. Coming home in the evening, the Moorish-style palaces and casinos with their twinkling lights spread golden reflections on the water of the Grand Canal.

Conclusion: Magical.

Categories: Architecture, Art, bridges, culture, Europe, History, Photography, Stock Photography, Travel, Venice | Tags: , , , , , , | 4 Comments

Leonardo da Vinci’s French Connection

flying machine

Leonardo da Vinci was a genius artist, inventor, town planner and architect. In 1516, he accepted an invitation from French King Francois I to live and work in Amboise, France. Until his death in 1519 at age 64, Da Vinci lived in Chateau du Cloux (now Clos Luce) near the royal castle, so, of course, we had to visit the house, now a museum.

Da Vinci’s inventions are displayed in miniature in the house, and full-size around the extensive grounds. Flying machines, paddle-wheel boats, revolving bridge (portable, for armies on the move), helicopter (aerial screw), machine gun, armored car (precursor to the modern tank), giant crossbow, a double-decker bridge that was supposed to help stop the spread of the plague, and his artwork hanging from trees.

We were also lucky enough to be there for a special exhibition on the progression of flying machines, from a man-powered set of wings to hot-air balloons and beyond.

 

Categories: Architecture, Art, bridges, engineering, France, History, Photography, Travel, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Amboise’s Classical (music) Castle

Orchestra and patrons at the foot of Amboise castle

Castles fascinate me: their steep-sided walls meant to repel invaders, their dungeons, their turrets and worn stone steps. Amboise’s fortifications were originally built around the 4thcentury AD, and since then, its appearance has been added to and changed many times as France’s rulers called it home (when they weren’t off making war or consolidating their holdings). A few were born, married or died here. For some time, it was considered a hunting lodge, and 75% of its late-14th-century construction remains today.

After exploring the castle, we found, between castle and garden, a full orchestra preparing for a concert. We made our way across the garden, up the steps leading through rows of round bushes, found a couple of chairs and settled in for a while, relaxing to the strains of music floating through the air. It was heavenly.

You’ll notice one of my photos looks like a framed painting or photo of the castle. Two empty gold frames were cleverly placed at the top of the garden, and we saw many people standing behind the frames to have their selfies taken with the castle in the background. Only one problem: They stood so close to the frame, filling it, that you could barely see the castle. I lined up my shot of the castle through the frame, and then a group conveniently stopped on a landing within my view to admire their surroundings. That’s what I call serendipity.

Categories: Architecture, culture, dragons, France, gardens, History, Photography, Travel | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

France’s Loire Valley: Medieval Amboise

View of Amboise’ castle across the river from our B*B

My husband retired early this year, so we decided to celebrate with a 7-week trip to Europe (while he was working, vacations could only last 3 weeks). We did all the planning, and now consider ourselves travel-agent worthy. For the next few weeks, I’ll be sharing the adventure with you, starting with our stay in France’s Loire River Valley, which is known for its many chateaus (castles). So, let me first introduce you to the charming medieval town of Amboise.

Getting to Amboise was fairly easy. From Paris’ Charles de Gaulle airport we took a train to St. Pierre des Corps, and then a 12-minute train ride to Amboise. As we walked with our suitcases from the tiny train station in Amboise to our bed-and-breakfast, a man riding a bicycle shouted at us that we were going the wrong way. He apparently assumed we were going TO the train station. We laughed, waved and kept on going. A few blocks later, when we found our accommodations, the big, wrought-iron gate was closed and locked. We tried phoning, but no one answered. Uh oh. Next door was a café/bar where the townspeople came to place sports bets (It was odd to see a Chinese family—obviously residents—chatting with the locals in French). We waited there for a few hours, checking every so often to see if the gate had been opened. Finally, we found a woman who lived at the B&B (not the owner), and she let us in. Our room was delightfully French, with a splendid view of the castle across the river.

Categories: Architecture, Art, bridges, culture, France, Photography, Stock Photography, Sunsets, Travel | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

Sunrise at Sandy Beach, Oahu, Hawaii

sunrise Sandy's Dan

Categories: Hawaii, seascape, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

Jerry’s Retirement Party

This post is for all the Waikiki Aquarium gang who attended or wanted to attend Jerry’s retirement party on June 23, 2018. Mahalo to all of you for being there in person or in spirit. I thought this might be the best way to show you the pics I took.

Categories: Uncategorized | 2 Comments

George Patton once dropped bombs on our Hawaii volcano to stop a lava flow

http://www.civilbeat.org/2018/05/the-time-they-bombed-mauna-loa-and-other-lava-stopping-schemes/

Categories: environment, Hawaii, History, nature, Photography, travel Hawaii, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

Sixgill shark found off Hawaii

This is a research paper published by Bishop Museum. I’m posting it for several reasons: it was written by my husband, I edited it and provided photos, and I think sharks are fascinating, especially since my husband and I co-authored and photographed the book, “Sharks and Rays of Hawaii” (available on amazon.com).

six gill shark BPBM copy

TO READ THE PAPER, PLEASE CLICK ON THIS LINK: Sixgill manuscript BPBM Occasional Paper 2017

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My Hawaii story for Travel Ideas Magazine

T.I. mag front story photoTO READ THE STORY, PLEASE CLICK ON THIS LINK: Hawaii story for Travel Ideas mag

 

Categories: Hawaii, travel Hawaii, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , | 5 Comments

Sunflower Dreams

Sunflower Dreams“Sunflower Dreams” is now available for sale (everything from canvas prints to throw pillows, mugs, t-shirts, shower curtains and cell-phone cases, all in time for Christmas shopping) on my website. p.s. I had a 16×20 canvas print made for my own bedroom wall. http://fineartamerica.com/featured/sunflower-dreams-jennifer-crites.html?newartwork=true

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CWW: Up and Down

Categories: Architecture, Asia, China, engineering, Photography, Travel, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , | 2 Comments

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